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22                                SHIPPING PRACTICE

It is the shipper's duty to supply the shipping company
with the bills of lading. As soon as the shipper ascertains
the number of packages he wishes to ship by the steamer, he
completes the bills of lading and lodges these with the
shipping company for their attention.

He may, however, request the carrying company to make
out bills of lading for him, in which case he supplies an
invoice and instructions, and the shipping company under-
take this business. A small charge is made for the extra
work entailed

The bills of lading are made out in "sets," and any
number may constitute the set according to the require-
ments of the particular trade. It is essential that at least
one bill of lading be supplied, together with a copy bill of
lading, known as the captain's copy, which is retained by
the master for record purposes.

Whilst the bill of lading is the document proper, the
copy is of no value, and as many copy bills of lading may
be included hi the set as are desired, either for the
shipping company's purposes or for the shipper's own
requirements.

The bills of lading, however, are of equal standing, and
it is usual to find at the foot of the bill of lading the
term—"In witness whereof the master or agent hath
affirmed............bills of lading all of this tenor and

date, the one of which being accomplished the others
stand void." The number of bills of lading which constitute
the set are entered in the blank space.

The shipper usually affirms to three bills of lading, one
for his own records, one for his consignee, and a second
copy for the consignee sent usually by the following mail
in case the first copy forwarded M™ is lost or delayed.
^ The master of the ship is instructed to deliver the
goods to the person who produces a bill of lading, and
thieflefore it is in the interest of all shippers, where more
than one Mil of lading is issued, to see that the con-
signee is the person who receives it. The master, in the
absence of knowing that the holder of the bill of lading has